Enoch Within and Outside the Books of Enoch: Parabiblical Writings, Iconography and Oral Tradition


The Vorlage of parabiblical writings attributed to Enoch was composed (in either Aramaic or Hebrew) no later than 1st cent. BCE, although some of its constituents (e.g. The Astronomical Book, The Book of Watchers) are dated to an earlier period (3rd cent. BCE). Its intellectual offspring survived in multilingual cross-cultural landscapes of the apocalyptic Judaeo-Christian traditions in three versions. 1 Enoch is fully attested in Ethiopic, with a number of extant segments in Aramaic from Qumran, as well as Greek passages embedded (predominantly, but not only) in Byzantine chronographic compositions; there are also fragments in Latin. 2 Enoch is wholly extant only in Church Slavonic (hence its designation as the Slavonic Apocalypse of Enoch), and 3 Enoch is attested exclusively in Hebrew. Significantly, The Book of Watchers, which was also known to the Church Fathers (e.g. Tertullian and Origen), was quoted as “scripture” in the Epistle of Jude. Since hitherto the scholarly discourse has been focused predominantly on apocryphal compositions ascribed to Enoch (i.e. 1, 2 and 3 Enoch), the current Research Unit aims at interdisciplinary analysis of Enoch’s image not only within, but also outside of the writings designated by his name, contextualizing them within iconography and oral traditions.



Enochic Traditions, Judaeo-Christian Parabiblical Literature, Islamic Exegetical Writings, Religious Art and Iconography, Orality


Florentina Badalanova Geller
The Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, London / University College London

Ewa Balicka-Witakowska
Uppsala University

Iva Trifonova
Cyrillo-Methodian Research Centre, Bulgarian Academy of Science

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